Single Ventricle Circulation

An educational simulation of circulation in children and young adults throughout the staged surgical palliation of congenital single-ventricle heart defects, culminating in the Fontan procedure.


Version 1.0 for iOS AND Mac OS was released on the Apple App Store 19 August 2022.

----> User's Manual now live.

Major funding for the expansion of the original iPad app is provided through a Tools & Technology Expansion Award grant by Additional Ventures.

With Thanks to our Partners


This Application was developed in the Figliola Research Group at Clemson University as part of the Transatlantic Network of Excellence for Multiscale Modeling of Single Ventricle Hearts for Clinical Decision Support, and funded by a grant from Fondation Leducq. Timothy Conover, lead App Engineer.
Another article about our group: Multiscale modelling of single-ventricle hearts for clinical decision support: a Leducq Transatlantic Network of Excellence

Performance of this lumped parameter model of human circulation has been partially validated in partnership with the MUSC Children's Hospital, as documented in our JTCVS article:
Conover, T., Hlavacek, A., et al, "An interactive simulation tool for patient-specific clinical decision support in single-ventricle physiology" The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery online Feb. 2018.
This is the "hand-held device app" mentioned in that paper. Further validation studies are pending.

The underlying circulation model is that of the Milano LaBS group:
Migliavacca, F., Pennati, G., et al, "Modeling of the Norwood circulation: effects of shunt size, vascular resistances, and heart rate", Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 280: H2076-H2086, 2001.

The model of lower-body exercise performance was adapted from:
Kung, E., Pennati, G., et al, "A Simulation Protocol for Exercise Physiology in Fontan Patients Using a Closed Loop Lumped-Parameter Model," ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol. 136, August 2014.

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